Silicon is one of the most abundant elements on earth. As a result of that, silicon wafers are found in pretty much every type of electronic device. When it comes to the fabrication of these wafers though, there are several different ways that it can be done. Let’s take a look at silicon wafer processing and the different methods of fabrication.
Horizontal Gradient Freeze Method
The gradient freeze method is a static technique. The melt is gradually solidified by the movement of a temperature gradient along the melt. In this technique, a sealed tube holds the starting materials. The materials are then separated, allowing them to react to one another.
Horizontal Bridgeman Method
This method takes place when the furnace is moved along the length of the quartz tube. It is done so in a way that the solidification of the melt starting from the seed crystal is achieved as the seed is moved from the hotter to the colder section of the furnace. The shape of the crystal is constrained by the walls of the tube.
Vertical Bridgeman Method
With the vertical Bridgeman method, the quartz or PBN crucible contains the seed in a well at the bottom and polycrystalline material above it. For growth to occur, the initial charge and a portion of the seed is melted and the crucible is lowered slowly into the bottom section of the furnace.
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