A Closer Look at How Semiconductors are Made


February 1, 2021

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Did you know that almost all types of electronic devices contain integrated circuits called semiconductors? To produce thin slices of semiconductors called wafers, a time-consuming and challenging process has to be performed. Let’s talk about how semiconductors are made by diving deep and exploring the different processes involved in wafer manufacturing.

What is Wafer Manufacturing?

How Semiconductors are Made


To produce affordable yet high-quality wafers, wire-sawn wafers have to go through the surface grinding process. At this stage, rough polishing and lapping are partially or entirely replaced.


During silicon wafer slicing, its purity levels, mechanical tolerances, and crystallographic perfection are being closely monitored. Semiconductor manufacturers seek to expand the yield because this process can significantly affect the cost of wafer production.


While silicon may be a hard tetravalent metalloid, it can also be brittle. For this reason, the edges of the wire-sawn wafers tend to break easily. To eliminate rough areas, the rounding process is performed.A diamond disk is used to get rid of the damaged areas while making the wafer edges smoother. This process is also necessary because it allows the manufacturers to achieve their customers’ desired diameter.


This mechanical process aims to flatten and polish the wafers by using pads, double or single-size lapping tools, and a slurry mixture. At this point, the extra silicon material is eliminated, and the dull grey and semi-reflective finish are achieved.


The silicon wafers are made thinner, more flexible, and ready for dicing. For this reason, polishing is required for manufacturing flexible circuits that are used for electronic devices.


When exposed to air, silicon wafers become contaminated. It’s important to note that contaminated wafers don’t function properly. To avoid contamination, they go through a cleaning process including ozone cleaning, RCA clean, mega sonic cleaning, or pre-diffusion clean.


After going through the cleaning process, the wafers are thoroughly inspected to ensure they don’t have any defects. This involves using special inspection tools and technologies that take images of two die to check for signs of imperfection.

What is Wafer Manufacturing?

Are You Looking for a Reliable Wafer Manufacturing Company?

At Wafer World, you can expect to find high-quality wafers at an affordable price. Contact us today and tell us what you’re looking for.

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