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GaAs + InP Reclaim

GaAs + InP Reclaim

Wafers can be processed more than once for additional savings. The cost of prime wafers has led to the rise of companies opting to recycle wafers. Wafer World recycles wafers up to 150mm diameter with a 3-step polishing process for high quality finished product.

Why waste, when you can have your used Gallium Arsenide recycled into mechanical-test grade wafers for all your calibration needs. As GaAs wafer usage continues to rise, GaAs reclaim becomes an even more important cost savings tool- allowing your company to decrease prime wafer purchases.

“GaAs industry leaders and satisfied Wafer World, Inc. reclaim customers.”

GaAs device demand will continue to see growth through 2014

“Compound Semiconductor”
“October 2010, vol. 16, number 7, pg 8”

The GaAs market staged a strong recovery toward the end of a tumultuous 2009 as a result of positive trends in wireless markets. The Strategy Analytics GaAs and Semiconductor Technologies (GaAs) service report, “GaAs Industry Forecast 2009-2014,” calculates that despite a recession, GaAs industry revenues managed to escape a drop in 2009, with a strong performance in the second half of the year translating to year-on-year revenues remaining flat at $3.7 billion.

GaAs technology will maintain its position as the enabling technology for next generation cellular handsets. The smartphone category of the handset market, in particular, provided a vital lifeline in 2009, boasting stronger than average annual growth in terminal volumes.
With an increasing average number of GaAs power amplifiers per terminal as well as increasing switch complexity in this sector, GaAs device demand from next generation handsets will grow faster than overall industry revenue growth.

“Our analysis incorporates individual wireless, consumer, infrastructure and defense market forecasts- taking into account technology trends,” noted Asif Anwar at Strategy Analytics. “There is no question that the improving capabilities of silicon and silicon germanium technologies, as well as emerging technologies such as gallium nitride, will provide increasing competition for GaAs technologies.”

“Despite this competition, GaAs device demand will continue to see continued growth through 2014. The market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 5% to be worth over $4.7 billion,” concluded Anwar.

Reclamation of GaAs Wafers by Chemical Stripping & Polishing

“Harvey Kitzmiller, Process Engineer & Sean Quinn, CEO Wafer World, Inc., West Palm Beach, Florida, USA”

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) is one of the most important compound semiconductor materials in the world- it has wide applications in wireless, opto-electronics, and Solar Cells. As a cost-savings measure, companies are forced to re-use substrates when feasible. Most of the major GaAs companies in the Unites States have reclaimed 4” and 6” GaAs wafers for many years. Diameters of 2”, 3”, 4”, 5”and 6” wafers can be processed and re-polished. Process Monitor wafers or production-rejects can be reclaimed 2-3 times and used as test grade material. Wafers with layers consisting of epitaxy, photo-resist, metal coating, dielectrics, etc. can be reclaimed 2-3 times.

The process flow chart for reclaim wafers at Wafer World, Inc. is presented. The economical benefits for reclamation of GaAs wafers are discussed in this paper as well.

GaAs Reclaim Process Flow Diagram

  • Sort wafer for different coating layers
  • Acid Stripping
  • Photo Resist Stripping
  • Au Etch
  • Wafer Cleaning with Mixture (Ammonia +H2O2 + H2O)
  • Sort and Regroup by Thickness
  • Rough Polish of Wafer Front-Side
  • Final Polish of Wafer Front-Side
  • Cleaning Polish of Wafer Front-Side
  • Final Inspection and Packaging

GaAs Recycling Resources

“Thomas Mirandi, et al, Tom@waferworld.com”
The Effects of Chemical Treatment and Storage Time on the Surface Chemistry of Semi-Insulating Gallium Arsenide, CS MANTECH DIGEST, 2009, Tampa

GaAs Physical Properties

“Created by Ronnie Phelix”

Characteristic Unit GaAs InP Si
Crystal structure Zinc-blend Zinc-blend Diamond Type
Lattice constant nm 0.5654 0.5869 0.543
Melting point °C 1,238 1,062 1,417
Dissociation pressure atm 0.9 25 ~10-7
Density g/cm3 5.316 4.787 2.33
The maximum proximity atom interval nm 0.245 0.254 0.235
Atomic concentration atom.cm3 4.43*1022 3.96*1022
Relative dilectric constant 11.1 12
Heat expansion coefficient 1/K 5.93*10-6 4.5*10-6 2.33*10-6
Band gap eV 1.4 1.35 1.11
Changed type Direct Direct Indirect
The degree of electronic movement cm2/V.sec 10,000 5,000 1,400
The degree of electron hole movement cm2/V.sec 450 150 380
Effective electronic mass 0.068 0.067 0.44
Intrinsic electronic concentration cm-3/V.sec 1.8*106 1.6*107
The rate of intrinsic resistance Ω.cm 3.8*108 8.2*107
The degree of head conduction W/cm.K 0.455 0.7 1.57
Specific heat cal/g.K 0.086 0.073 0.167
Ionicity 0.31 0.421
Knoop hardness kg/m2 680~750 341~430
Laminating defective energy meV/atom 43±3 17±3