All About The Mechanical Specifications for Silicon Wafers


March 18, 2020

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Silicon wafers have mechanical specifications that silicon manufacturing needs to adhere to guarantee high-quality wafers. If even just one of these specifications isn’t met, a wafer is considered to be of poor quality and is unfit for customer distribution. So we’re going to break down the mechanical specifications for silicon wafers.

What is Silicon Manufacturing?

What are the Mechanical Specifications for Silicon Wafers?

Crystal Growth and Doping Process

Crystal growth and doping process cite how or what a single crystal's growing process should be. There are two ways you can grow crystals, either through the CZ method of FZ method. It also specifies what a wafer’s doping process should be like ion implantation or thermal diffusion.

Wafer Diameter

Wafer diameter refers to the diameter of the wafer after silicon manufacturing is completed. The measurement should exclude any flats.

Wafer Thickness

Wafer thickness is determined using a wafer thickness gauge. It’s measured at its center. Wafer thickness is an important guideline because very thin wafers are prone to damage or warpage and very thick wafers also cannot be processed.

Total Thickness Variation

This specification refers to the difference between the minimum and maximum values of wafer thickness. It’s measured using a non-contact thickness gauge. Too much thickness variations can result in automated processing problems, especially about mechanical handling and photolithographic processes.


Bow refers to the depression of the wafer because of sawing or the contortion of the wafer axis because of thermal processing.


This refers to the difference between the maximum and minimum range of the wafer axis from a reference plane.

Flat Dimension

This refers to the exact lengths and orientations of wafer flats.

Edge Contour

Edge contour is an important specification because it lessens chipping and film build-up around the edges of the wafers.

Where to find the best silicon manufacturing?

Want to Learn More About Silicon Manufacturing?

The mechanical specifications of the silicon wafer play an important role in making sure that the wafers that get to customers are of premium quality. At Wafer World, our silicon manufacturing processes are meticulously carried out, ensuring that all our wafers pass the mechanical specifications. We offer a wide range of high-quality wafers for your convenience! Contact us for inquires!