Wafer Manufacturing | The Standards of High-Quality Wafers


March 19, 2019

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Wafers have become increasingly important as the demand for electronic devices and gadgets also increased. Different types of wafers go through different wafer manufacturing processes but all have the same goal — to produce high-quality wafers. If you need a high-quality wafer for your business or for your next project, here are the standards used by wafer suppliers to measure quality:


Wafer purity or cleanliness is the first thing that you should look into if you are looking for high-quality wafers. Check for any LPDs or Light Point Defects, these are undesired particles on the surface of the wafer. The LDPs found on the surface are also calculated.

Flatness or Planarity

This quality is determined through the following:

  • TTV (Total Thickness Variation) – This is the absolute difference between the thickest and thinnest parts of a wafer that is detected during a scan pattern or a sequence of point measurement. The acceptable value on an 8” wafer is less than 15 um.
  • Warp- Warp provides an exact measurement of the wafer shape. Deviations like concave and convex are measured from a reference plane. An acceptable value on an 8” wafer is less than 20 um.
  • GTIR (Global Total Indicated Reading) - This has something to do with the highest point to the valley deviation of a wafer. This is often found on the backside or the reference plane of a wafer.
  • Site TIR- This criterion is important in resolving submicron geometries. Any deformities or Bow-concavity is measured from the center free from any shift in thickness. A good number of a bow on an 8” wafer is less than 30 um.


High-quality wafers have little to no defects. Presence of any defects will ultimately affect the quality of your end product.  There are different wafer defects but the most common ones are the following:

  • Point Defects
  • Dislocations
  • Stacking Faults and twins
  • Line Defects
  • Plane Defects
  • Volume defects
where is the best wafer manufacturing?

Quality Wafer Manufacturing

Find a Wafer Manufacturing that can provide you with high-quality wafers at the right price. Get the quality wafer you need at Wafer World. Call us today for any inquiries or buy wafers online!

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