Wafer bonding is a packaging technology that is used for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), microelectronics and optoelectronics. Wafer bonding ensures that the encapsulation is mechanically stable and hermetically sealed. Let’s take a look at some different types of silicon wafer bonding methods.
The direct wafer bonding method is a method in which the adhesion between two surfaces occurs as a result of chemical bonds. Typically, the adhesion is weak at room temperature. When those weak bonds are transformed into covalent bonds, it reaches maximum bond strength. This is done through a high-temperature thermal annealing.
The term anodic bonding is used to describe the bonding of silicon wafers to glass wafers. With anodic bonding, the bond occurs when the two wafers are heated after being brought in contact and an electric field is applied.
Adhesive wafer bonding takes place when an intermediate layer is used for bonding. Materials that are suitable to be used as an intermediate layer include polymers, spin-on glasses, resists, and polyimides. This type of bonding is popular due to its low-temperature processing, surface planarization and tolerance to particles.
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