Wafer Manufacturing | Basic Elements Used in Wafer Manufacturing


August 22, 2019

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Silicon is the most common and popular type of element used to fabricate wafers. But it isn’t the only element you can work with. There are a few other elements used in wafer manufacturing, which have their strengths that make them more suitable for certain applications. Here are some of the basic elements used in wafer manufacturing:


Aluminum is the most plentiful metallic element on earth. It is used in many facets of wafer manufacturing, which includes the following:

  • Aluminum is known for its resistivity which makes it a good main conductor between components.
  • It also has a good attachment to silicon dioxide as a thin film.
  • It is also the type of metal used for bonding and probing pads on die.
  • Ceramic packages are mostly made of alumina.
  • It is utilized for wire bonding ICs in ceramic packages.


Boron is a brittle but hard semi-metallic element that is utilized as a dopant in semiconductor instruments. It is identified as an acceptor when employed as a dopant for Si instruments.


Germanium is a semi-metallic element that was originally used to manufacture transistors and diodes. But due to its low bandgap, it created huge leakage currents in its reverse-biased p-n junctions.


Lead is one of the elements used in solder to finish the outside leads of an IC package.


Phosphorous is a non-metallic element utilized as a dopant in semiconductor instruments. It is identified as a donor when employed as a dopant for Si instruments.

Gallium Arsenide

Gallium Arsenide or GaAs is a compound element used as a substrate semiconductor for creating integrated circuits. It can function properly even at higher temperatures compared to Si devices. It is also less likely to show thermally-induced leakage and noise.

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