Wafer Manufacturing | The Process of Semiconductor Fabrication


April 29, 2019

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Wafer manufacturing involves a series of intricate processes to come up with a defect-free wafer for various semiconductor applications. If your business works with wafers, it’s important to know the process of semiconductor fabrication so you can do a quality check to make sure that you achieve your required specification or standards. Read on to know more about the process of semiconductor fabrication:


This method involves transferring a pattern from a photomask to the surface of a wafer. It uses a photoresist which changes properties upon exposure to light. The pattern characterized by the mask is either detached or continued after development, depending on the type of resist.


To create a pattern on the wafer, the material is selectively removed through the etching process. It uses a mask to retain the desired pattern on the wafer. The process can be done through wet etching or dry etching.  Wet etching is actively isotropic which restrains its application and the etching time is difficult to control. Dry etching is very anisotropic but less choosy and is more efficient for transferring small design.


This method involves two deposition process: physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition. The purpose of this method is used for the IC fabrication process where a number of layers of various materials have to be deposited. The CVD and PVD create uniformity in the deposited material.

Chemical Mechanical Planarization

In wafer manufacturing, CMP is used to level the surface of the wafer through a chemical slurry. It is also used to develop IC structures.


This process transforms silicon on a wafer to become silicon dioxide.

Ion Implantation

This technique is commonly used to introduce dopant impurities into crystalline silicon.


Diffusion is the flow of impurity atoms in a semiconductor material at extreme temperatures. It is used to inject dopant atoms into silicon from a chemical vapor supply.

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Wafer manufacturing is not an easy process but everything is done meticulously to produce the best quality wafers. At Wafer World, you are sure to get the best wafers in the best price possible. Call us today for any inquiry or purchase wafers online!

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