Silicon Wafers | Semiconductor Fabrication Process

October 23, 2017

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Semiconductor devise fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multi-step process where the electronic circuits are created on silicon wafers. Let’s take a look at some of the steps that go into the semiconductor fabrication process.


Lithography is a process that is used to transfer a pattern from a photomask to the surface of the wafer. The pattern information is recorded on a layer of photoresist which is then applied to the top of the wafer. The photoresist is either developed by wet or dry etching and changes its properties when exposed to various forms of light or illumination.


Etching is used to remove material in order to create a specific pattern. The material that is removed can be done by either wet or dry etching. Wet etching is chemical while dry etching is performing the etching by hand. Wet etching is not suited to transfer patterns with sub-micron feature size. It does, however, have a high selectivity and it does not damage the material. Dry etching, on the other hand, is highly anisotropic and less selective but is more capable of transferring small structures.


Multiple layers of different materials have to be deposited during the semiconductor fabrication process. The two most important deposition methods are the physical vapor deposition and the chemical vapor deposition. During the physical vapor deposition process, accelerated gas ions sputter particles from a sputter target in a low-pressure plasma chamber. Chemical vapor deposition is a chemical reaction of a gas mixture on the substrate surface at high temperatures.

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