The Final Stages of Si Wafer Manufacturing


June 23, 2020

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Si wafer manufacturing involves a series of complicated steps that aim to produce highly functional, defect-free wafers. From growing highly pure silicon crystals to packaging to final testing, each step is done carefully and precisely to prevent altering the quality of the final wafer. In this article, we will discuss the processes involved in the final stages of Si wafer manufacturing.

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What are the Processes Involved in the Final Stages of Si Wafer Manufacturing?


Grinding, ion implantation, and etching are just some of the steps that can cause incredible damage to a Si wafer. Annealing helps repair the crystal lattice structure of the wafer and get rid of the damage caused by the previous processes.

Die Attach or Wire Bonding

Before the wafers are encapsulated, they are first firmly fixed onto lead frames. Then, thin gold wires are linked to bonding pads on the chip to the frames to establish the electrical track between the lead fingers and the wafer. These wafers will be tested to their limits of performance using a quality assurance test to guarantee that the wafers are high-quality and reliable. Flaws exhibited by the wafers can help manufacturers get an idea of what to improve in the quality and the process of making wafers.


Encapsulation is the process of creating individual packaging for each wafer by using a molten plastic material. This molten material is formed around each die. The mold is then opened to allow the cleaning and pressing of the lead frames.

Lead Finish

Encapsulated lead frames are submerged in a tin or lead solution while charging them. The presence of tin or lead creates a uniform plated deposit, which can help increase the conductivity and generate a clean and uniform surface for surface mount applications.

Final Testing

Each chip is tested at different stages in the wafer manufacturing process to guarantee high-quality performance. But before shipping it to consumers, the wafers will go through final testing to make sure that the chips are working as they should.

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