If you’re looking for a type of silicon wafer that’s perfect for RF circuits and solar chips, your best bet is the FZ wafer. Made from pure silicon, these wafers come with a very low concentration of carbon and oxygen impurities. These features make float zone wafers well-suited for various applications that require clock cycles.
The float zone method is one of the growth techniques used for mono-crystalline silicon. Besides ensuring a higher growth rate, the float zone method is highly effective at minimizing defects and controlling resistivity throughout the entire crystal. This technique was invented by a chemist named Henry Theurer in 1962.
Also known as the most common type of float zone wafers, high resistivity float zone wafers are made from extremely pure float zone ingots that have a resistivity that exceeds 1,000 ohm-cm. In most cases, high-resistivity float zone wafers are used for transmitter and receiver chips, RF MEMS switches, and microwave and millimeter wafer circuits and devices.
The neutron-doped float zone wafers are created from undoped high-purity float zone ingots. To create N-Type material that has a lower but tighter resistivity range, these ingots are doped with the use of a Neutron Transmutation Doping irradiation process. For this reason, they’re usually used to produce important parts for semiconductor power devices.
To produce gas-doped float zone wafers, the float zone ingot has to be doped on purpose with gaseous dopants that were introduced at the melt interface. Thanks to this process, the length of the ingot exhibits excellent uniformity.
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