Wafer Manufacturing | The Process of Creating a Computer Chip


April 16, 2019

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Believe it or not, computer chips originate from sand. The silica sand goes through the wafer manufacturing process to produce semiconductors, which are used to create microprocessors. These microprocessors are what we use in our daily electronic devices. Here is the process of creating a computer chip:

Silica Sand

The most important component of silica sand is silicon dioxide. It is the founding material for semiconductor manufacturing.

Silicon Ingot

To produce electronic-grade silicon that has a 99.99% purity, numerous purification and filtering processes are implemented.

Sliced Wafers

While maintaining the excellent properties of the wafers, a circular silicon ingot is cut into the wafers as thinly as possible. The wafers produced in this process is then purified and polished to create a defect-free surface.


After purification and polishing, a photoresist is applied thinly over the wafer. It will then be exposed to a UV light mask to transfer pattern on the surface of the wafer. After the exposed photoresist is washed off by a solvent, it will reveal the pattern of the microprocessor’s circuit.

Ions and Doping

Silicon wafer will now go through doping, which is bombarding the wafer with ions to alter its conductive properties.


Using a photolithography technique, a pattern of hard material is used on the wafer to remove unwanted silicon. Chemicals will then be used to etch the wafer, leaving behind fine silicon rims.


The insulated transistor goes through the process of electroplating, which forms a layer of copper on the surface.

Layering Interconnects

After the transistor process is complete, it is then interconnected in a framework which allows the chips to behave like a processor.

Test Die

The chips will now be tested and sliced into dies.


Processors will be tested for power ability, ultimate frequency, and other performance standards. For those that pass the metrics, it will be packaged using a substrate and heat spreader.

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Wafer manufacturing involves intricate and meticulous processes to produce only the best type of wafers. This will also contribute to producing high-quality computer chips. Get the wafer you need at Wafer World. Call us today for any inquiry or purchase wafers online!

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