Silicon Wafer Manufacturers | How is a Computer Chip Created?


October 30, 2018

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One of the most common technological pieces that silicon is used to make is the computer chip. Computer chips are found in everything from actual computers, to even cars and smartphones. How exactly are computer chips created though? Well, let’s take a look at how computer chips are created by silicon wafer manufacturers.


The entire chip-making process begins with a special sand called silica. Silica is comprised of silicon dioxide. The silicon is the base material l for semiconductor manufacturing and must be pure before it can be used.

Silicon Ingot

After the silica is purified, it is melted and shaped to create a silicon ingot. Multiple purifications and filtering processes are performed in order to accomplish this.

Cut Wafers

The silicon ingot is taken from its circular shape and cut into wafers. They are cut as thin as possible while maintaining the material’s ability to be used in the fabrication process.


After the wafers have been polished and prepared, the photolithography process then takes place. A layer of photoresist is spread thinly across the wafer, which is then exposed to a UV light mask.


A pattern of hard material is applied to the wafer using another photolithography step. Chemicals are then used to remove unwanted silicon, leaving behind thin silicon ridges.


An insulation layer is applied to the surface of the almost-complete transistor and three holes are etched into it. After this is done, electroplating is then performed to deposit copper ions on the surface of the transistor, forming a layer of copper on top of the insulation.

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